Why Do We Think That Inflation Expectations Matter for Inflation? (And Should We?) by Jeremy B. Rudd published Federal Reserve Board (9/2021)
Economists and economic policymakers believe that households’ and firms’ expectations of future inflation are a key determinant of actual inflation. A review of the relevant theoretical and empirical literature suggests that this belief rests on extremely shaky foundations, and a case is made that adhering to it uncritically could easily lead to serious policy errors.
A Monetary-Fiscal Theory of Sudden Inflations and Currency Crises by David S. Miller published by Federal Reserve Board (2021).
Treating nominal government bonds like other bonds leads to a new theory of sudden inflations and currency crises. Holmstrom (2015) and Gorton (2017) describe bonds as having costly-to-investigate opaque backing that consumers believe is sufficient for repayment. Government bonds’ nominal return is their face value, their real return is determined by the government’s surplus. In normal times, consumers are confident of repayment but ignorant of the true surpluses that will fund that repayment. When consumers’ belief in real repayment wavers, they investigate surpluses. If consumers learn surpluses will be insufficient to repay bonds in real terms, the price level jumps. This explains why we observe inflationary crises, but never deflationary.